Location

Division
Political/Ethnic

Moieties and Clans

History

Culture & Society

Muskoke
Creeks, Muscogee

 

 

 

Ethnic Division

Muskoke (Muskhogean-speakers) - the ruling group of the confederacy

  • Coweta
    • Likatcka
    • Wetumpka
  • Hilibi
    • Kitcopataki
  • Eufaula
    • Sakapadai
  • Wakokai
    • Wiogufki
    • Tukpafka
  • Kasihta + Yuchi migrants

Shawnee Lenawe (Algonquian-speakers) - probably refugee migrants from the north, they constituted one of the most important element in the confederacy

  • Tukabahchee
    • Atasi
    • Kolomi
    • Fushatchee
    • Kanhatki
    • Kaeledji
  • Holiwahali
    • Laplako

Alabama (Muskhogean-speakers) - probably the native inhabitants of the Alabama river valley

  • Coosa
    • Otciapofa
    • Big Tulsa
    • Okfuskee
    • Abihkutci
    • Tukabahchee Tallahassee
    • Tukpafka
    • Talmuchasi
  • Abihka (Coosa) + Natchez
    • Talladega
    • Kantcati
  • Okchai
    • Lalogalga
    • Asilanabi
  • Tuskegee
  • Wiwohka
  • Pakana
  • Alabama
  • Koasati
  • Pawokti
  • Muklasa
  • Apalachee
  • Tallapoosa

Hitchiti (Muskhogean-speakers) - probably the native inhabitants of Georgia

  • Apalachicola
  • Oconee
  • Hitchiti
  • Chiaha
  • Sawokli - speaking unidentified language but in later years speaking Hitchiti
  • Okmulgee
  • Tamali

Timucua (Language isolate) - remnant groups from the Timucua peoples in Florida

  • Osochi (Noktilalgi)
  • Tawasa

Yuchi (Language isolate) - refugee group from the Ohio Valley among the Creeks, settled among the Kasihta-Muskoke

Natchez (Language isolate) - refugee group from the Mississippi Valley in Louisiana among the Creeks, settled among the Abihka-Alabama

Chickasaw (Muskhogean-speakers) - settled for a time among the Creeks

+ other remnants of broken nations settled among the Creeks to gain security

Political and Geographical Division

Upper Creeks - were on the Alabama, Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers in Alabama

  • Alabama - Alabama-Koasati-speaking
  • Abihka (Coosa) - Alabama-Koasati-speaking
  • Tallapoosa - Alabama-Koasati-speaking
  • Okfuskee - Alabama-Koasati-speaking
  • Wakokai - Muskoke-speaking
  • Eufaula - Muskoke-speaking
  • Hillabee - Muskoke-speaking
  • Atasi - Shawnee-speaking, in later years speaking Muskoke
  • Tukabahchee - Shawnee-speaking, in later years speaking Muskoke - the leading town among the Upper Creeks
  • Wetumpka - Alabama-Koasati-speaking
  • ? - Alabama-Koasati-speaking
  • ? - Alabama-Koasati-speaking
  • ? - Natchez-speaking
  • Pakana - Alabama-Koasati-speaking
  • Tawasa - Timucua-speaking
  • Okchai - Chacato-speaking, perhaps closely related to Alabama-Koasati
  • Tomahitan - Yuchi-speaking
  • ? - Chickasaw-speaking
  • ? - Shawnee-speaking, in later years speaking Muskoke

Lower Creeks - were on the Chattahoochee River, the province of Apalachicola

  • Tuskegee - Alabama-Koasati-speaking
  • Coweta (Kawíta) - Muskoke-speaking
  • Kasihta (Kasíhta) - Muskoke-speaking
  • Kolomi - Shawnee-speaking, in later years speaking Muskoke
  • Hitchiti - Hitchiti-speaking
  • Ocmulgee - Hitchiti-speaking
  • Apalachicoli - Hitchiti-speaking
  • Oconee - Hitchiti-speaking
  • Osochee - Timucua-speaking, in later years speaking Hitchiti
  • Tacusa - speaking unidentified language
  • Ylapi - speaking unidentified language
  • Sawokli - speaking unidentified language but in later years speaking Hitchiti

 

 
  Sources:
Hodge, Frederick Webb (1910). Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, Government Printing Press.
Swanton, John R. (1922/1998). Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors. Tallahassee, University Press of Florida.
Swanton, John R. (1939). Notes on the Creek Indians. Washington, Government Printing Office.
Walker, Willard B. (2004). Creek Confederacy Before Removal. In Handbook of North American Indians: Southeast, vol 14. Raymond D. Fogelson (editor). Washington, Smithsonian Institution.